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The top contact pads are created by depositing and lifting-off a Ta/Au bilayer (Fig. The illustration in Figure 1 only shows one dumbbell-shape base mesa with six pair of top contact pads.

In practice, a large quantity of such structure can be fabricated, providing thousands or even more of nanopillars on a single wafer.(a) Bottom mesa structures are created from the blanket MTJ film by the first photolithography and ion beam etching, then the bottom contacts are protected by the second photolithography.

As a result, the fabrication time can be greatly reduced.

More importantly, this approach requires no EBL or other expensive fabrication tools.

Among many serious challenges are issues due to the large leakage current of next generation CMOS transistors in the off-state, caused by the reduction of gate oxide thickness in sub-20 nm transistors.

The basic structure of an MTJ consists of two ferromagnetic (FM) thin films separated by an ultrathin insulating layer.

This new NSL-based method may greatly facilitate research on MTJ nanopillars including the exploration of the ultralow energy magnetization switching.

The essential steps of this fabrication method are schematically shown in Fig.

The resistance difference between the two states defines the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) value of an MTJ.This is accomplished by placing an excessive amount of positive charge on the wafer through chemical treatment.After submerging the treated wafer into the nanosphere solution, the negatively charged nanospheres are then deposited with a density dictated by the concentration of the nanosphere solution and the dwell time (Fig. A uniform but random nanosphere coverage over a large area of several square inches can be readily accomplished.1, involving three photolithography processes and one NSL process.First, blanket multilayer thin films of the constituent layers of MTJs are deposited on a Si wafer.

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