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Although the red fox tends to kill smaller predators, including other fox species, it is vulnerable to attack from larger predators, such as wolves, coyotes, golden jackals and medium- and large-sized felines.The species has a long history of association with humans, having been extensively hunted as a pest and furbearer for many centuries, as well as being represented in human folklore and mythology. vulpes by its smaller size, proportionately smaller skull and teeth, and coarser fur.Apart from its large size, the red fox is distinguished from other fox species by its ability to adapt quickly to new environments.Despite its name, the species often produces individuals with other colourings, including albinos and melanists.The bushy tail also forms the basis for the fox's Welsh name, llwynog, literally 'bushy', from llwyn 'bush'. A large subspecies measuring 70–90 cm in length and weighing 5–10 kg, the maximum length of the skull for males is 163.2 mm. They display significant individual, sexual, age and geographical variation in size.
Compare with West Frisian foks, Dutch vos, and German Fuchs. Red foxes present in Britain (and therefore Australia) are usually ascribed to this subspecies, though many populations there display a great degree of tooth compaction not present in continental European populations. Their skulls are fairly narrow and elongated, with small braincases. Sexual dimorphism of the skull is more pronounced than in corsac foxes, with female red foxes tending to have smaller skulls than males, with wider nasal regions and hard palates, as well as having larger canines.Typically, albinism is accompanied by deformations and usually develops in years of insufficient food. The rump and lower back are dark brown or dark grey, with varying degrees of silver on the guard hairs.The cross on the shoulders is black or brown, sometimes with light silvery fur.The earliest fossil remains of the modern species date back to the mid-Pleistocene in association with the refuse of early human settlements. The southern (or montane) refugium occurs in the subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of the Rocky Mountains, the Cascade Range, and Sierra Nevada. The forefoot print measures 60 mm (2.4 in) in length and 45 mm (1.8 in) in width, while the hind foot print measures 55 mm (2.2 in) long and 38 mm (1.5 in) wide.This has led to the theory that the red fox was hunted by primitive humans as both a source of food and pelts. They trot at a speed of 6–13 km/h (4–8 mph), and have a maximum running speed of 50 km/h (30 mph).