Elucidating the structure of dna
Thomson's discovery had, of course, important implications for chemistry, as it showed that the atom is not an indivisible building block of chemical compounds, but it took a number of years before this led to developments of direct relevance to chemistry.In 1911 Ernest Rutherford, who had worked in Thomson's laboratory in the 1890s, formulated an atomic model, according to which the positively charged atomic nucleus carries most of the mass of the atom but occupies a very small part of its volume.Consequently, Bohr formulated in 1913 an alternative atomic model, in which only certain circular orbits of the electrons are allowed.In this model light is emitted (or absorbed), when an electron makes a transition from one orbit to another.The number of nominations received has also increased dramatically from 20-40 during the first decade to 400-500 in the 1990s.The number of candidates is usually smaller than the number of nominations, since many candidates receive more than one nomination.Recipients of these invitations, for both Physics and Chemistry, are: 1) Swedish and foreign members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; 2) members of the Nobel Committees for Physics and for Chemistry; 3) Nobel Laureates in Physics and Chemistry; 4) professors in Physics and Chemistry in Scandinavian universities and at Karolinska Institutet; 5) professors in these subjects in a number of universities outside Scandinavia, selected on a rotation basis by the Academy of Sciences; and 6) other scientists that the Academy chooses to invite.
He found that these negatively charged 'corpuscles', as he called them, have a mass 1000 times smaller than the hydrogen atom.
Even if the contributions just described were made a decade or more after Thomson's discovery, much important work in the borderland between physics and chemistry was published in the 1890s, and this was naturally given a strong consideration by the first Nobel Committee for Chemistry (see Section 2).
In fact, three of the Laureates during the first decade, Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Svante Arrhenius and Wilhelm Ostwald, are generally regarded as the founders of a new branch of chemistry, physical chemistry.
This is instead created by a cloud of electrons circling around the nucleus.
Rutherford received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry already in 1908 for his work on radioactivity (see Section 2).